Morrison's Beloved and its Two "Amadas": Postcolonial Signifying upon Translation within African-American Intertextualities

  • José Endoença Martins
Keywords: Signifyin(g), black body, translation, fluency, resistance

Abstract

This article compares two different Brazilian translated versions of Toni Morrison's novel Beloved: the first published in 1994, the other in 2007, both as Amada. The analysis concentrates on the speech delivered by Baby Suggs, in which she exhorts her listeners to care for their bodies. The main idea behind this article is that Beloved and the Amadas converse or talk, thus performing signifyin(g), a concept which, in Henry Louis Gates's words, explains how intertextual conversation happens through “repetition and revision, or repetition with a signal of difference” (xxiv). Its general theoretical foundations include interconnections involving several instantiations of signifyin(g): between Black nationalism and negritude, postcolonialism and African Americanism. In its specific concern with translation, the conversation that the source keeps with the target texts involves two translation theories: fluency and resistance; two kinds of translating interventions: omission and addition; and three types of strategies: syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic. These distinct categories help readers grasp translation as a continuum by means of which a specific source text encounters its target equivalents and, then, returns to its origin. The original article is in English.

References

Baker, Mona. Translation and Conflict: A Narrative Account. London: Routledge, 2006. Print. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203099919

Bhabha, Homi. O local da cultura. Trans. Myriam Ávila Eliana, Lourenço de Lima Reis and Gláucia Renate Eliana Gonçalves. Belo Horizonte: Editorial UFMG, 1998. Print.

Cone, James H. Martin and Malcolm and America: A Dream or a Nightmare. New York: Orbis Books, 2007. Print.

Du Bois, W. E. B. Writings. New York: The Library of America, 1986. Print.

Chesterman, Andrew. Memes of Translation: The Spread of Ideas in Translation Theory. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1997. Print. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.22

Deleuze, Gilles and Félix Guattari. Kafka: Towards a Minor Literature. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1986. Print.

Fanon, Frantz. The Wretched of the Earth. Trans. Richard Philcox. New York: Grove Press, 2004. Print.

Fernández Retamar, Roberto. Caliban and Other Essays. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989. Print.

Ferreira, Ricardo Franklin. Afro-Descendente: Identidade em Construção. São Paulo: EDUC; Rio de Janeiro: Pallas, 2004. Print.

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of African-American Literary Criticism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989. Print.

Glissant, Edouard. Introdução a uma poética da diversidade. Trans. Enilce Albergaria Rocha. Juiz de Fora: Editora UFJF, 2005. Print.

Grewal, Gurleen. Circles of Sorrow, Lines of Struggle: The Novels of Toni Morrison. Louisiana: Louisiana State University Press, 1998. Print.

Hall, Stuart. “The Question of Cultural Identity.” Modernity and Its Futures: Understanding Modern Societies. Eds. Stuart Hall, David Held and Tony McGrew. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1992. 273-325. Print.

Hall, Stuart. Da Diáspora: Identidades e Mediações Culturais. Trans. Adelaide la Guardiã Resende et al. Belo Horizonte: Editora UFMG: Brasilia, 2003. Print.

Hall, Stuart. “The Work of Representation”. Ed. Stuart Hall. Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices. London: SAGE Publications Ltd., 2003: 13-64. Print.

Hall, Stuart. A Identidade Cultural na Pós-modernidade. Trans. Tomaz Tadeu da Silva and Guacira Lopes Louro. Rio de Janeiro: DP&A, 2006. Print.

Hatim, Basil and Jeremy Munday. Translation: An Advanced Resource Book. New York: Routledge, 2004. Print. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203501887

Landers, Clifford E. Literary Translation: A Practical Guide. Sydney: Multilingual Matters Ltd, 2001. Print. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853595639

Memmi, Albert. The Colonizer and the Colonized. Trans. Howard Greenfield. Boston: Beacon Press, 1965. Print.

Moretti, Franco. “Conjecture on World Literature.” New Left Review. 1 (2000): 54-68. Print.

Morrison, Toni. Beloved. London: Picador, 1987. Print.

Morrison, Toni. Amada. Trans. Evelyn Kay Massaro. São Paulo: Círculo do Livro, 1994. Print.

Morrison, Toni. Amada. Trans. José Rubens Siqueira. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2007. Print.

Munday, Jeremy. Introducing Translation Studies. New York: Routledge, 2001. Print.

Robins, Kevin. “Tradition and Translation: National Culture in Its Global Context.” Eds. John Coner and Sylvia Harvey. Enterprise and Heritage: Crosscurrents of National Culture. London: Routledge, 1991. 21-44. Print.

Shakespeare, William. The Tempest. 1611. London: Wordsworth Editions Limited, 1994. Print.

Schleiermacher, Friedrich. “On the Different Methods of Translation.” Ed. Lawrence Venuti. The Translation Studies Reader. London: Routledge, 2004. 43-63. Print.

Tyson, Lois. Critical Theory Today: A User-Friendly Guide. London: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1999. Print.

Venuti, Lawrence. The Scandals of Translation: Towards an Ethics of Difference. New York: Routledge, 1998. Print. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203269701

West, Cornel. Keeping Faith: Philosophy and Race in America. New York: Routledge, 1993. Print.

Section
Articles